Social Contact and Loneliness
We published a full peer-reviewed paper on our re-named Social Contact and Loneliness measures.
Both measures address the core issue of loneliness. Social Contact asks questions in a positive way
(Figure 1). Loneliness is more negative, based on ONS guidelines (Figure 2).
- Benson T, Seers H, Webb N, et al. Development of social contact and loneliness measures with validation in social
prescribing. BMJ Open Quality 2021; 10: e001306.
Figure 1 Social contact measure
Figure 2 Loneliness measure
Person-Specific Outcome (PSO)
PSO is an individualised measure. It asks people to enter two issues that they most want help with
and scores each.
2 Typically PSO is used on first referral and after the intervention (Figure 3).
Figure 3 Person-Specific Outcome measure
2. Benson T. Person-specific outcome measure (PSO) for use in primary and community care. BMJ Open Quality 2021; 10:
Social determinants of health
Social determinants of health (SDoH) are factors such as poverty and housing, which are known to
affect people’s health and wellbeing. We have developed a new measure to capture this for
individual patients (Figure 4). This is based in part on the work of Sir Michael Marmot.
Figure 4 Social Determinants of Health measure
Donald Kirkpatrick developed a simple framework for evaluating all types of training course.
has four aspects – Reaction, Learning, Behaviour and Results. It is the basis of a short training
evaluation measure (Figure 5).
Figure 5 Training measure
Please contact us for more information about anything mentioned here, or anything else.
3. Marmot M. The health gap: the challenge of an unequal world. London: Bloomsbury 2015.
4 Kirkpatrick DL, Kirkpatrick JD. Evaluating training programs: the four levels. 3rd Edition, San Francisco CA: Berrett-Koehler